Timeline of Maltese history

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Timeline of Maltese history

5,200 BC

	Arrival of man in Malta

Arrival of man in Malta

3,200 BC

	Building of megalithic temples

Building of megalithic temples

2,000 BC

	Invasion of Bronze Age people

Invasion of Bronze Age people

1,000 BC

	The Phoenicians were present on Malta before the end of the 2nd millennium BC.

The Phoenicians were present on Malta before the end of the 2nd millennium BC.

900 BC

	The start of the Iron Age

The start of the Iron Age

720 BC

	A Phoenician colony is founded on Malta.

A Phoenician colony is founded on Malta.

700 BC

	A Punic temple, dedicated to the mother goddess Astarte, is built over the remains of the Tas-Silġ megalithic temples.

A Punic temple, dedicated to the mother goddess Astarte, is built over the remains of the Tas-Silġ megalithic temples.

539 BC

	Cyrus the Great, founder of the Persian Empire, conquers Phoenicia.

Cyrus the Great, founder of the Persian Empire, conquers Phoenicia.

480 BC

	The islands come under the control of Carthage, a former Phoenician colony, and rapidly develop into a Carthaginian naval base.

The islands come under the control of Carthage, a former Phoenician colony, and rapidly develop into a Carthaginian naval base.

264 BC

	First Punic War.

First Punic War.

221 BC

	Second Punic War.

Second Punic War.

218 BC

	Invasion of Malta by Titus Sempronius Longus.

Invasion of Malta by Titus Sempronius Longus.

218 BC

	Malta is incorporated into the Roman Republic, within the province of Sicily.

Malta is incorporated into the Roman Republic, within the province of Sicily.

218 BC

	Beginnings of the Maltese textile industry.

Beginnings of the Maltese textile industry.

200 BC

	A Roman temple, dedicated to the goddess Hera, is built over the remains of the Tas-Silġ megalithic temples.

A Roman temple, dedicated to the goddess Hera, is built over the remains of the Tas-Silġ megalithic temples.

150 BC

	Third Punic War.

Third Punic War.

41

	The Maltese are granted municipal privileges by Rome.

The Maltese are granted municipal privileges by Rome.

60

	Saint Paul shipwrecked on the island.

Saint Paul shipwrecked on the island.

60

	Saint Publius Prince of Malta. First Bishop of Malta.

Saint Publius Prince of Malta. First Bishop of Malta.

117

	Malta becomes a municipium during the reign of Hadrian.

Malta becomes a municipium during the reign of Hadrian.

395

	Western Roman rule over Malta, following the final division of the Roman Empire.

Western Roman rule over Malta, following the final division of the Roman Empire.

400

	A Western Roman church is built over the remains of the Tas-Silġ megalithic temples.

A Western Roman church is built over the remains of the Tas-Silġ megalithic temples.

454

	Malta is occupied by the Vandals.

Malta is occupied by the Vandals.

464

	Malta is occupied by the Goths.

Malta is occupied by the Goths.

533

	Belisarius restores the Maltese Islands to the Byzantine Empire.

Belisarius restores the Maltese Islands to the Byzantine Empire.

870

	Malta is conquered by Aghlabid Arabs.

Malta is conquered by Aghlabid Arabs.

870

	The fortified Roman settlement of Melita, on the highlands in the centre of Malta, is reduced in size, further fortified, and renamed Medina

The fortified Roman settlement of Melita, on the highlands in the centre of Malta, is reduced in size, further fortified, and renamed Medina, precursor to the Medieval city of Mdina.

870

	The Arabs construct a fort on the site of present-day Fort St Angelo.

The Arabs construct a fort on the site of present-day Fort St Angelo.

870

	Improved agriculture and irrigation systems are introduced, including the 'noria' or waterwheel; cotton and citrus fruits are introduced to

Improved agriculture and irrigation systems are introduced, including the 'noria' or waterwheel; cotton and citrus fruits are introduced to Malta.

909

	Fatimids conquered Malta.

Fatimids conquered Malta.

1053–1054

	The Byzantine Empire unsuccessfully attempts to recapture the islands.

The Byzantine Empire unsuccessfully attempts to recapture the islands.

1091

	The Norman Count Roger I of Sicily invades Malta and the Muslim inhabitants negotiate a peaceful surrender. Gozo is sacked by the Normans.

The Norman Count Roger I of Sicily invades Malta and the Muslim inhabitants negotiate a peaceful surrender. Gozo is sacked by the Normans.

1122

	Arab uprising against the Normans in Malta.

Arab uprising against the Normans in Malta.

1127

	Norman control over Malta is consolidated under Roger II of Sicily.

Norman control over Malta is consolidated under Roger II of Sicily.

1127

	A Norman governor is installed, and Norman soldiers are garrisoned in Malta's three main castles.

A Norman governor is installed, and Norman soldiers are garrisoned in Malta's three main castles.

1127

	Christianity re-established as the Islands' dominant religion.

Christianity re-established as the Islands' dominant religion.

1144

	Second attempt by the Byzantine Empire to recapture the Islands.

Second attempt by the Byzantine Empire to recapture the Islands.

1154

	The Catholic Church in Malta is incorporated into the See of Palermo.

The Catholic Church in Malta is incorporated into the See of Palermo.

1192

	Margaritus of Brindisi was created first Count of Malta, perhaps for his unexpected success in capturing Empress Constance contender to the

Margaritus of Brindisi was created first Count of Malta, perhaps for his unexpected success in capturing Empress Constance contender to the Sicilian throne. (to 1194, forfeited by House of Hohenstaufen)

1194

	Malta and Sicily are ruled by the Swabians (House of Hohenstaufen).

Malta and Sicily are ruled by the Swabians (House of Hohenstaufen).

1223

	The exile to Malta of the entire male population of the town of Celano (Italy).

The exile to Malta of the entire male population of the town of Celano (Italy).

1224

	Expulsion of all Muslims from Malta and Sicily.

Expulsion of all Muslims from Malta and Sicily.

1240

	Stationing of a Norman and Sicilian (Swabian) Garrison on Malta.

Stationing of a Norman and Sicilian (Swabian) Garrison on Malta.

1266

	Malta and Sicily are ruled by the Angevins.

Malta and Sicily are ruled by the Angevins.

1283

	Malta and Sicily are ruled by the Crown of Aragon.

Malta and Sicily are ruled by the Crown of Aragon.

1350

	Establishment of a Maltese nobility

Establishment of a Maltese nobility

1350

	Grant in fief of lands 'Diar el Bniet' by Louis of Sicily (House of Aragon) to Francesco Gatto on 4 January 1350, by a privilegium given at

Grant in fief of lands 'Diar el Bniet' by Louis of Sicily (House of Aragon) to Francesco Gatto on 4 January 1350, by a privilegium given at Messina, the fief having reverted to the Crown after it had been held by Michele Bava.

1350

	First Incorporation of the Maltese Islands into the Royal Domain (Kingdom of Sicily).

First Incorporation of the Maltese Islands into the Royal Domain (Kingdom of Sicily).

1356

	Giacomo Pelegrino is noted as 'Capitano della Verga' ('Hakem').

Giacomo Pelegrino is noted as 'Capitano della Verga' ('Hakem').

1397

	Second Incorporation of the Maltese Islands into the Royal Domain (Kingdom of Sicily).

Second Incorporation of the Maltese Islands into the Royal Domain (Kingdom of Sicily).

1397

	Establishment of the Università, a form of local government, in Malta.

Establishment of the Università, a form of local government, in Malta.

1419

	The Militia List is drawn up, giving information about the population of Malta in the Middle Ages.

The Militia List is drawn up, giving information about the population of Malta in the Middle Ages.

1420

	The 'Consiglio Popolare' is mentioned when King Alphonsus of Aragon mortgaged the islands to Antonio Cardona.

The 'Consiglio Popolare' is mentioned when King Alphonsus of Aragon mortgaged the islands to Antonio Cardona.

1425

	Uprising by the Maltese against Don Gonsalvo Monroy during his absence from the island, Count of Malta.

Uprising by the Maltese against Don Gonsalvo Monroy during his absence from the island, Count of Malta.

1425

	His wife Donna Costanza is held hostage in the Castellamare (Fort St Angelo)

His wife Donna Costanza is held hostage in the Castellamare (Fort St Angelo)

1425

	Monroy appears before the Court of Sicily demanding that the strongest possible measures be taken against the insurgents.

Monroy appears before the Court of Sicily demanding that the strongest possible measures be taken against the insurgents.

1425

	The Maltese insurgents repel an attempt by the Viceroy of Sicily to bring the island to order

The Maltese insurgents repel an attempt by the Viceroy of Sicily to bring the island to order

1425

	Maltese representatives appear before the same Court, offering to 'redeem' the Islands by repaying the 30,000 florins originally paid by Mon

Maltese representatives appear before the same Court, offering to 'redeem' the Islands by repaying the 30,000 florins originally paid by Monroy for his fiefdom over Malta, and asking King Alfonso to incorporate the Islands into his Royal Domains

1425

	Monroy agrees to the terms but demands hostages to be held for as long as his wife is held in Malta. The impasse is resolved when Antonio In

Monroy agrees to the terms but demands hostages to be held for as long as his wife is held in Malta. The impasse is resolved when Antonio Inguanez offers his two sons as hostages

1425

	Negotiations drag on for several months during which only 10,000 florins are collected and the negotiated time elapses. However Monroy dies

Negotiations drag on for several months during which only 10,000 florins are collected and the negotiated time elapses. However Monroy dies retaining for his heirs only a third of the sum collected and ordering that another third be returned to the Maltese. The last third he left to the King to be spent on strengthening the fortifications of Malta.

1425

	Impressed by the loyalty of his Maltese subjects, the King declares Malta to be the most notable gem in his Crown. The old capital city of M

Impressed by the loyalty of his Maltese subjects, the King declares Malta to be the most notable gem in his Crown. The old capital city of Mdina acquires the name Città Notabile, as a result.

1425

	The Maltese do not submit to Aragonese rule until the Magna Charta Libertatis granting them their new rights is delivered to them

The Maltese do not submit to Aragonese rule until the Magna Charta Libertatis granting them their new rights is delivered to them

1427 3rd January

	King Alfonso incorporates Malta to the Crown of Aragon (Kingdom of Sicily), and promises never to grant Malta as a fief to any third party.

King Alfonso incorporates Malta to the Crown of Aragon (Kingdom of Sicily), and promises never to grant Malta as a fief to any third party.

1429

	The Hafsid Berbers attempt to capture Malta.

The Hafsid Berbers attempt to capture Malta.

1436

	In the 'Rollo' (inventory) of the benefices of the churches and chapels in Malta and Gozo, held by Bishop de Mello, ten established chapels

In the 'Rollo' (inventory) of the benefices of the churches and chapels in Malta and Gozo, held by Bishop de Mello, ten established chapels are mentioned: The Cathedral of Mdina and the Church of San Lorenzo a Mare (Birgu), the 'Nativity of the Virgin' (Naxxar), 'Saint Helen' (Birkirkara), 'Saint George' (Qormi), 'Assumption of the irgin (Bir Miftuh), Saint Philip of Aggira (Zebbug), 'Saint Nicholas of Bari' (Siggiewi), 'Saint Catherine of Alexandria' (Zejtun and Zurrieq), Saint Domenica' (Dingli), and 'the Nativity of the Virgin' (Mellieha).

1485

	Death of Peter Caxaro

Death of Peter Caxaro

1522

	Suleiman I drives the Military Hospitaller Knights of St. John of Jerusalem out of Rhodes.

Suleiman I drives the Military Hospitaller Knights of St. John of Jerusalem out of Rhodes.

1530 26th October

	In an effort to protect Rome from Islamic invasion, Emperor Charles V grants the Maltese Islands to the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem in

In an effort to protect Rome from Islamic invasion, Emperor Charles V grants the Maltese Islands to the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem in perpetual fief.

1531

	The Knights stage their first attacks from their new naval base in Malta, forming part of a Christian fleet under the command of Admiral And

The Knights stage their first attacks from their new naval base in Malta, forming part of a Christian fleet under the command of Admiral Andrea Doria in attacks on the Turks at Modone, on the Ottoman fort at Coronna and, in 1535, on Tunis.

1533

	Fortification and development of Fort St Elmo, on the tip of the Sciberras Peninsula

Fortification and development of Fort St Elmo, on the tip of the Sciberras Peninsula

1535

	First known celebration of Carnival in Malta.

First known celebration of Carnival in Malta.

1540

	Increasingly frequent razzias on Malta and Italy by Ottomans and Barbary pirates.

Increasingly frequent razzias on Malta and Italy by Ottomans and Barbary pirates.

1547

	Attempted invasion of Malta at Marsaxlokk, by Ottomans and Barbary pirates under the command of Turgut Reis.

Attempted invasion of Malta at Marsaxlokk, by Ottomans and Barbary pirates under the command of Turgut Reis.

1550 June

	Andrea Doria and Claude de la Sengle, bailli of the French langue of the Knights, capture and massacre the population of Mahdia, in Tunisia.

Andrea Doria and Claude de la Sengle, bailli of the French langue of the Knights, capture and massacre the population of Mahdia, in Tunisia.

1551 May

	Ottomans and Barbary pirates under the command of Turgut Reis and Sinan Pasha commence a series of attacks on eastern Sicily and Malta, in r

Ottomans and Barbary pirates under the command of Turgut Reis and Sinan Pasha commence a series of attacks on eastern Sicily and Malta, in revenge for the events in Mahdia.

1551 18th July

	Ottomans and Barbary pirates attempt to capture Malta, landing some 10,000 men at Marsa Muscietto.

Ottomans and Barbary pirates attempt to capture Malta, landing some 10,000 men at Marsa Muscietto.

1551 July

	The Turkish invaders abandon the harbour area and sail north to St. Paul's Bay, and stage a short-lived siege on Mdina.

The Turkish invaders abandon the harbour area and sail north to St. Paul's Bay, and stage a short-lived siege on Mdina.

1551 July

	Razzia on the Island of Gozo by the Turkish invaders; the Knights' local governor, Galatian de Sesse, surrenders the Citadel; almost all the

Razzia on the Island of Gozo by the Turkish invaders; the Knights' local governor, Galatian de Sesse, surrenders the Citadel; almost all the inhabitants of Gozo (some 5,000 to 6,000 people) are enslaved, and transported to Tarhuna Wa Msalata in Libya from Mġarr ix-Xini.

1551 July

	Turgut sails south to Tripoli, and conquers the Knights' fortress.

Turgut sails south to Tripoli, and conquers the Knights' fortress.

1551 15th August

	The Knights' local governor, Gaspar de Vallier, negotiates a truce that ensures safe passage from Tunis to Malta for the Knights of the garr

The Knights' local governor, Gaspar de Vallier, negotiates a truce that ensures safe passage from Tunis to Malta for the Knights of the garrison, but excludes the Maltese, Calabrian and Rhodian soldiers, who are auctioned off into slavery by the Turks.

1551 15th August

	Pope Julius III suggests that the Knights should abandon Malta, and retreat to Messina or Syracuse.

Pope Julius III suggests that the Knights should abandon Malta, and retreat to Messina or Syracuse.

1552

	Construction of Fort Saint Michael, in Senglea.

Construction of Fort Saint Michael, in Senglea.

1552 April

	Fearing further razzias by Turks and Barbary corsairs, one thousand Maltese flee Malta, seeking refuge in Sicily.

Fearing further razzias by Turks and Barbary corsairs, one thousand Maltese flee Malta, seeking refuge in Sicily.

1553

	Charles V offered Mahdia to the Order of Saint John but the Order declined, so he ordered the destruction of the city.

Charles V offered Mahdia to the Order of Saint John but the Order declined, so he ordered the destruction of the city.

1553

	Juan de Vega prohibited exportation of wheat to Malta so mills were built to prevent starvation.

Juan de Vega prohibited exportation of wheat to Malta so mills were built to prevent starvation.

1557 21st August

	Jean Parisot de Valette is elected Grand Master of the Knights of Malta.

Jean Parisot de Valette is elected Grand Master of the Knights of Malta.

1560

	The Knights of Malta escalate their corsairing activities in the western Mediterranean.

The Knights of Malta escalate their corsairing activities in the western Mediterranean.

1561

	The Holy Inquisition is established in Malta. Domenico Cubelles is the first Inquisitor.

The Holy Inquisition is established in Malta. Domenico Cubelles is the first Inquisitor.

1564 December

	The Ottoman war council in Constantinople decrees that Malta is to be invaded and conquered.

The Ottoman war council in Constantinople decrees that Malta is to be invaded and conquered.

1565 30th March

	Ottoman fleet leaves Constantinople for Malta; Queen Elizabeth remarks: 'If the Turks should prevail against the Isle of Malta, it is uncert

Ottoman fleet leaves Constantinople for Malta; Queen Elizabeth remarks: 'If the Turks should prevail against the Isle of Malta, it is uncertain what further peril might follow to the rest of Christendom.'

1565 9th April

	The Spanish Viceroy of Sicily, Don García de Toledo y Osorio, a tours the Island's fortifications; he promises the Knights that in the comin

The Spanish Viceroy of Sicily, Don García de Toledo y Osorio, a tours the Island's fortifications; he promises the Knights that in the coming invasion they need only hold out until June, when he would bring his armada back to assist Malta.

1565 16th April

	Evacuation to Sicily of 'a great number of people' from Malta, including large numbers of Maltese nobility, in anticipation of the imminent

Evacuation to Sicily of 'a great number of people' from Malta, including large numbers of Maltese nobility, in anticipation of the imminent invasion.

1565 18th May

	Ottoman armada sighted off the coast of Malta, signalling the start of the Great Siege of Malta.

Ottoman armada sighted off the coast of Malta, signalling the start of the Great Siege of Malta.

1565 19th May

	A storm prevents the Turkish fleet from landing at Marsaxlokk; the vessels are sheltered in Ġnejna Bay and at Għajn Tuffieħa.

A storm prevents the Turkish fleet from landing at Marsaxlokk; the vessels are sheltered in Ġnejna Bay and at Għajn Tuffieħa.

1565 20th May

	The Turkish fleet anchors at Marsaxlokk, moved to Żejtun and sets up camp at Marsa.

The Turkish fleet anchors at Marsaxlokk, moved to Żejtun and sets up camp at Marsa.

1565 23rd June

	Fort St. Elmo falls to the Turks.

Fort St. Elmo falls to the Turks.

1565 23rd June

	Turkish commanders order all the dead Knights found in St. Elmo to be beheaded; their mutilated bodies are floated across Grand Harbour on p

Turkish commanders order all the dead Knights found in St. Elmo to be beheaded; their mutilated bodies are floated across Grand Harbour on planks towards the bastions of Senglea and Birgu.

1565 29th June

	Four galleys land in the north of Malta, bringing 600 soldiers, 42 knights, 56 gunners and numerous volunteers, to reinforce the Island's de

Four galleys land in the north of Malta, bringing 600 soldiers, 42 knights, 56 gunners and numerous volunteers, to reinforce the Island's defences; they walk to Mdina by night, and then on to Birgu the following morning.

1565 3rd July

	The Turkish fleet is transported on rollers, overland, from Marsamxett Harbour to Grand Harbour, in preparation for an assault on Senglea.

The Turkish fleet is transported on rollers, overland, from Marsamxett Harbour to Grand Harbour, in preparation for an assault on Senglea.

1565 8th July

	The Turkish forces are reinforced with the arrival of 29 vessels and 2,500 warriors accompanied by the Bey of Algiers.

The Turkish forces are reinforced with the arrival of 29 vessels and 2,500 warriors accompanied by the Bey of Algiers.

1565 9th July

	Reinforcements sent by Viceroy Don García de Toledo fail to make harbour, as a result of the fall of Fort St. Elmo, and return to Sicily.

Reinforcements sent by Viceroy Don García de Toledo fail to make harbour, as a result of the fall of Fort St. Elmo, and return to Sicily.

1565 12th July

	Senglea is besieged.

Senglea is besieged.

1565 7th September

	Don Garcia's reinforcements, known as the Grande Soccorso ('great relief'), finally arrive.

Don Garcia's reinforcements, known as the Grande Soccorso ('great relief'), finally arrive.

1565 11th September

	Turkish forces retreat from Malta.

Turkish forces retreat from Malta.

1566 28th March

	The founding of Malta's new capital city, Valletta. A general strengthening of Malta's fortifications is undertaken.

The founding of Malta's new capital city, Valletta. A general strengthening of Malta's fortifications is undertaken.

1605

	Garzes Tower built

Garzes Tower built

1610 16th February

	Wignacourt towers built

Wignacourt towers built

1614 6th July

	Razzia by the Ottoman Empire

Razzia by the Ottoman Empire

1615 21st April

	Wignacourt Aqueduct inaugurated

Wignacourt Aqueduct inaugurated

1616 0

	William Lithgow reports that on a visit to Malta he 'saw a Spanish soldier and a Maltese boy burnt in ashes, for the public profession of so

William Lithgow reports that on a visit to Malta he 'saw a Spanish soldier and a Maltese boy burnt in ashes, for the public profession of sodomy'. The following day more than one hundred young men flee to Sicily for fear of suffering a similar fate

1634 12th September

	A gunpowder factory explosion in Valletta kills 22 people.

A gunpowder factory explosion in Valletta kills 22 people.

1637

	Lascaris towers built

Lascaris towers built

1658 March

	De Redin towers built

De Redin towers built

1667

	Sopu Tower built

Sopu Tower built

1670 15th June

	Fort Ricasoli built

Fort Ricasoli built

1710 24th Decemebr

	First grant in favour of locals (including a woman) of a title of nobility to have been created by the Grand Masters. On 24 December 1710, G

First grant in favour of locals (including a woman) of a title of nobility to have been created by the Grand Masters. On 24 December 1710, Grand Master Perellos granted the title of Baron of Gomerino jointly to Paolo and Beatrice Testaferrata.

1715

	Many coastal batteries and redoubts are built

Many coastal batteries and redoubts are built

1720

	Perellos Tower built

Perellos Tower built

1723 14th September

	Fort Manoel built

Fort Manoel built

1732 9th January

	The Manoel Theatre (then known as the Teatro Pubblico) opens in Valletta with a performance of Scipione Maffei's classic tragedy Merope.

The Manoel Theatre (then known as the Teatro Pubblico) opens in Valletta with a performance of Scipione Maffei's classic tragedy Merope.

1749 29th June

	Conspiracy of the Slaves

Conspiracy of the Slaves

1758

	Fort Chambray built

Fort Chambray built

1760

	After the death of the Baron Paolo Testaferrata, the office of 'Depositario' within the Inquisition was continued by his widow Vincenza Mati

After the death of the Baron Paolo Testaferrata, the office of 'Depositario' within the Inquisition was continued by his widow Vincenza Matilde Testaferrata. With the exception of a short period, she remained in office until 1778.

1775 8th September

	Rising of the Priests

Rising of the Priests

1792

	Fort Tigné built

Fort Tigné built

1797

	By a Papal brief dated 3 March 1797, Bishop Vincenzo Labini and all his successors in the diocese of Malta, were given the title of 'Bishop

By a Papal brief dated 3 March 1797, Bishop Vincenzo Labini and all his successors in the diocese of Malta, were given the title of 'Bishop of Malta and Archbishop of Rhodes'. This privilege was suppressed in 1928, and the title was changed to 'Archbishop, Bishop of Malta'.

1798 9th June

	Napoleon invades Malta. Mdina (Notbile) capitulates on 10 June. The act of capitulation of Mdina is signed on the one part by Vincenzo Barba

Napoleon invades Malta. Mdina (Notbile) capitulates on 10 June. The act of capitulation of Mdina is signed on the one part by Vincenzo Barbara representing the French Republic and the Hakem together with the jurats representing the people.

1798 12th June

	The Order capitulates. The Act of capitulation of Malta is signed on 12 June by on the one part by Napoleon on behalf of the French Republic

The Order capitulates. The Act of capitulation of Malta is signed on 12 June by on the one part by Napoleon on behalf of the French Republic, on the other six signed on behalf of the Order, the people of Malta and the King of Spain.

1798 12th June

	The Commission of Government is appointed. General Claude Henri Belgrand de Vaubois is appointed Military Governor. The islands are divided

The Commission of Government is appointed. General Claude Henri Belgrand de Vaubois is appointed Military Governor. The islands are divided into 12 municipalities.

1798

	Slavery, the Roman Inquisition, and all titles of nobility are abolished in Malta.

Slavery, the Roman Inquisition, and all titles of nobility are abolished in Malta.

1798 October

	Tsar Paul I of Russia become de facto Grand Master of the Order, and orders the creation of a 'Throne of Malta,' in the Vorontsov Palace in

Tsar Paul I of Russia become de facto Grand Master of the Order, and orders the creation of a 'Throne of Malta,' in the Vorontsov Palace in St. Petersburg (now on display in the State Hermitage Museum).

1798 28th October

	The French forces in Gozo surrender and the island becomes independent. First petition for the establishment of a separate Roman Catholic di

The French forces in Gozo surrender and the island becomes independent. First petition for the establishment of a separate Roman Catholic diocese on Gozo, led by Archpriest Saverio Cassar sent a day later.

1799

	Maltese uprising against the French following extensive pillaging of Maltese churches and cathedrals. Britain takes Malta under its protecti

Maltese uprising against the French following extensive pillaging of Maltese churches and cathedrals. Britain takes Malta under its protection, in the name of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. The Union Jack flies over Valletta for the first time, alongside the Neapolitan flag.

1800 4th September

	The French surrender. General Vaubois surrendered and with Rear Admiral Villeneuve, Major General Pigot and Captain Martin, signed the artic

The French surrender. General Vaubois surrendered and with Rear Admiral Villeneuve, Major General Pigot and Captain Martin, signed the articles of Capitulation. Although 20,000 Maltese lost their lives during the uprising, not one Maltese was present to sign the document. Malta and Gozo become a Protectorate.

1801

	Tsar Paul I of Russia demands the return of Malta to the Knights. A Statue of the great German leader is established for peace amends

Tsar Paul I of Russia demands the return of Malta to the Knights. A Statue of the great German leader is established for peace amends

1801 24th June

	Admiral Sir Alexander Ball is sent to Malta as Plenipotentiary Minister of His British Majesty for the Order of Saint John, with orders to e

Admiral Sir Alexander Ball is sent to Malta as Plenipotentiary Minister of His British Majesty for the Order of Saint John, with orders to evacuate the British forces from the Islands, and to prepare for their return to the Knights of St. John.

1802

	First Declaration of Rights issued in Malta: Dichiarazione dei Diritti degli Abitanti di Malta e Gozo, including the right to freedom of con

First Declaration of Rights issued in Malta: Dichiarazione dei Diritti degli Abitanti di Malta e Gozo, including the right to freedom of conscience under the rule of law.

1802

	Under the Peace of Amiens, Britain is ordered to return Malta to the Knights of St John, but facing imminent hostilities by Napoleonic Franc

Under the Peace of Amiens, Britain is ordered to return Malta to the Knights of St John, but facing imminent hostilities by Napoleonic France, Britain chooses not to comply.

1803

	Ball was appointed Civil Commissioner in May 1803 and immediately instructed the removal of Neapolitan forces from the Island.

Ball was appointed Civil Commissioner in May 1803 and immediately instructed the removal of Neapolitan forces from the Island.

1806 18th July

	A gunpowder magazine explosion in Birgu kills around 200 people.

A gunpowder magazine explosion in Birgu kills around 200 people.

1807 4th April

	Beginning of the Froberg mutiny at Fort Ricasoli.

Beginning of the Froberg mutiny at Fort Ricasoli.

1809

	Ball dies in October and is succeeded by the military commander, Major-General Hildebrand-Oakes.

Ball dies in October and is succeeded by the military commander, Major-General Hildebrand-Oakes.

1813 23rd June

	Civil Commissioner Sir Hildebrand-Oakes is replaced by Sir Thomas Maitland, the first to be described by the British as ‘Governor’. Malta be

Civil Commissioner Sir Hildebrand-Oakes is replaced by Sir Thomas Maitland, the first to be described by the British as ‘Governor’. Malta becomes a crown colony.

1813

	Malta is granted the Bathurst Constitution.

Malta is granted the Bathurst Constitution.

1814

	Under the Treaty of Paris, and subsequently ratified by the Congress of Vienna, Malta status as a British Crown Colony is confirmed.

Under the Treaty of Paris, and subsequently ratified by the Congress of Vienna, Malta status as a British Crown Colony is confirmed.

1814

	The Grand Harbour becomes an important shipping waystation, eventually serving as the headquarters for the Mediterranean Fleet.

The Grand Harbour becomes an important shipping waystation, eventually serving as the headquarters for the Mediterranean Fleet.

1831 20th June

	The diocese of Malta is separated from that of Palermo.

The diocese of Malta is separated from that of Palermo.

1835

	Malta was granted a Constitution providing for a Council of Government of seven members of whom three were to be nominated Maltese represent

Malta was granted a Constitution providing for a Council of Government of seven members of whom three were to be nominated Maltese representatives.

1836 36th December

	Second petition for a separate Roman Catholic diocese for Gozo is presented to Pope Gregory XVI.

Second petition for a separate Roman Catholic diocese for Gozo is presented to Pope Gregory XVI.

1849

	Malta was granted a Constitution providing for a Council of Government of eighteen members of whom eight were to be elected by the people.

Malta was granted a Constitution providing for a Council of Government of eighteen members of whom eight were to be elected by the people.

1853

	The Crimean War; Malta serves as a hospital base for wounded combatants, and acquires the nickname Nurse of the Mediterranean.

The Crimean War; Malta serves as a hospital base for wounded combatants, and acquires the nickname Nurse of the Mediterranean.

1855 9th June

	Three Gozitan representatives personally petition Pope Pius IX for a separate Roman Catholic diocese for Gozo; the pontiff promises his supp

Three Gozitan representatives personally petition Pope Pius IX for a separate Roman Catholic diocese for Gozo; the pontiff promises his support.

1860 25th October

	The Colonial Office in London approves the establishment of a separate Roman Catholic diocese for Gozo.

The Colonial Office in London approves the establishment of a separate Roman Catholic diocese for Gozo.

1864 16th September

	Pope Pius IX issues a papal bull entitled Singulari Amore (With remarkable love), separating the islands of Gozo and Comino from the diocese

Pope Pius IX issues a papal bull entitled Singulari Amore (With remarkable love), separating the islands of Gozo and Comino from the diocese of Malta; seven days later, Michele Francesco Buttigieg is elected first Bishop of Gozo.

1869 17th November

	Opening of the Suez Canal. This greatly enhanced the importance of the Grand Harbour to British merchant marine and naval shipping.

Opening of the Suez Canal. This greatly enhanced the importance of the Grand Harbour to British merchant marine and naval shipping.

1870

	J.S. Tucker proposes the construction of a railway from Valletta to Mdina.

J.S. Tucker proposes the construction of a railway from Valletta to Mdina.

1878

	21 titles of nobility were successfully claimed by various individuals before a Royal Commission.

21 titles of nobility were successfully claimed by various individuals before a Royal Commission.

1880

	In education, 'Anglicization' of Maltese students becomes a matter of policy.

In education, 'Anglicization' of Maltese students becomes a matter of policy.

1883 28th February

	The Malta Railway service is inaugurated, with service from Valletta to Floriana, Ħamrun, Msida, Birkirkara, Lija, San Antonio, Attard, Most

The Malta Railway service is inaugurated, with service from Valletta to Floriana, Ħamrun, Msida, Birkirkara, Lija, San Antonio, Attard, Mosta (San Salvatore), and Mdina.

1885 8th September

	(Otto Settembre) is recommended as a national holiday, commemorating the victory of the Knights and the Maltese over the Ottoman Empire in t

(Otto Settembre) is recommended as a national holiday, commemorating the victory of the Knights and the Maltese over the Ottoman Empire in the Siege of Malta (1565).

1887

	Constitution of 1887 provides that four members in the Council of members were to represent the clergy, the nobility and landed proprietors,

Constitution of 1887 provides that four members in the Council of members were to represent the clergy, the nobility and landed proprietors, university graduates and the merchants.

1890 31st March

	Malta Railway Company Ltd. is declared bankrupt. The Malta Railway is closed.

Malta Railway Company Ltd. is declared bankrupt. The Malta Railway is closed.

1892 25th February

	The Malta Railway reopens, under government management.

The Malta Railway reopens, under government management.

1900

	The Malta Railway line is extended to Mtarfa Barracks.

The Malta Railway line is extended to Mtarfa Barracks.

1905 23rd February

	An electric tramway service is introduced in Malta by McCartney, McElroy & Co. Ltd., connecting Valletta, the Three Cities, and Żebbuġ and Ħ

An electric tramway service is introduced in Malta by McCartney, McElroy & Co. Ltd., connecting Valletta, the Three Cities, and Żebbuġ and Ħamrun.

1908 July

	Malta Tramways Limited assumes operations of the electric tramway service.

Malta Tramways Limited assumes operations of the electric tramway service.

1912

	Dr. Enrico Mizzi, a staunch supporter of the italianità of Malta, proposes in a journal article that Britain could exchange Malta for Eritre

Dr. Enrico Mizzi, a staunch supporter of the italianità of Malta, proposes in a journal article that Britain could exchange Malta for Eritrea with Italy, on the understanding that Britain would be granted access to Maltese harbours and facilities. The article proposes an Italo-Maltese federation, with elected Maltese representatives in the Italian parliament.

1914

	Throughout World War I, especially following the failed invasion of Gallipoli, many casualties are shipped to hospitals in Malta, resuming i

Throughout World War I, especially following the failed invasion of Gallipoli, many casualties are shipped to hospitals in Malta, resuming its role as the Nurse of the Mediterranean.

1917

	Dr. Enrico Mizzi is court-martialled for sedition, and sentenced to one year imprisonment. His sentence is subsequently commuted, and a pard

Dr. Enrico Mizzi is court-martialled for sedition, and sentenced to one year imprisonment. His sentence is subsequently commuted, and a pardon is issued.

1919 7th June

	Sette Giugno protests over increases in the price of bread. British soldiers fire on the crowd and kill four Maltese protesters, during a vi

Sette Giugno protests over increases in the price of bread. British soldiers fire on the crowd and kill four Maltese protesters, during a violent riot instigated by students. The protests lead to greater autonomy for the Maltese.

1921 14th April

	Constitution of 1921 is promulgated, and it grants autonomy by providing for a bicameral legislature with the power to legislate on all matt

Constitution of 1921 is promulgated, and it grants autonomy by providing for a bicameral legislature with the power to legislate on all matters not considered 'reserved' for colonial interest.

1921 1st November

	The first Legislature is officially opened.

The first Legislature is officially opened.

1929 15th December

	The Malta Tramway service is terminated.

The Malta Tramway service is terminated.

1930

	The 1921 Constitution is suspended.

The 1921 Constitution is suspended.

1930 31st March

	The Malta Railway service is terminated.

The Malta Railway service is terminated.

1934

	English and Maltese are declared the official languages of Malta, to the exclusion of Italian which had been the primary language of governm

English and Maltese are declared the official languages of Malta, to the exclusion of Italian which had been the primary language of government, commerce, education and culture in Malta for more than 800 years.

1935

	Mussolini's Abyssinian War and intervention on the side of Franco in the Spanish Civil War ends any possibility of reconciliation between It

Mussolini's Abyssinian War and intervention on the side of Franco in the Spanish Civil War ends any possibility of reconciliation between Italy and the United Kingdom.

1935

	Tension runs high in Malta due to the possibility of Italy entering the war against the allies.

Tension runs high in Malta due to the possibility of Italy entering the war against the allies.

1940

	Throughout World War II, Malta plays an important role due to the strategic location of the Grand Harbour at the crossroads of the Axis ship

Throughout World War II, Malta plays an important role due to the strategic location of the Grand Harbour at the crossroads of the Axis shipping lanes.

1940 30th May

	Dr. Enrico Mizzi, co-leader of the Partito Nazionalista, is arrested and imprisoned in Fort San Salvatore, to secure 'the public safety and

Dr. Enrico Mizzi, co-leader of the Partito Nazionalista, is arrested and imprisoned in Fort San Salvatore, to secure 'the public safety and the Defence of the [Maltese Islands]...in view of the hostile origin or association of Dr. Enrico Mizzi.'

1940 10th June

	Italy declares war on France and the United Kingdom.

Italy declares war on France and the United Kingdom.

1940 11th June

	First air raids on Malta. Malta would go on to endure the heaviest, sustained bombing attack of the War: some 154 days and nights and 6,700

First air raids on Malta. Malta would go on to endure the heaviest, sustained bombing attack of the War: some 154 days and nights and 6,700 tons of bombs.

1942 February

	Governor Dobbie issues a warrant for the deportation, exile and internment in Uganda of 47 Maltese (including Dr. Enrico Mizzi) who were sus

Governor Dobbie issues a warrant for the deportation, exile and internment in Uganda of 47 Maltese (including Dr. Enrico Mizzi) who were suspected of pro-Italian sentiments.

1942 9th February

	In the Council of Government, Nationalist Party member Sir Ugo Mifsud gives a spirited, juridical rebuttal of Britain’s policy of deporting

In the Council of Government, Nationalist Party member Sir Ugo Mifsud gives a spirited, juridical rebuttal of Britain’s policy of deporting 'italo-phile' Maltese subjects; he collapses in the Chamber of Deputies, and dies two days later.

1942 April

	The Court of Appeal declares that the deportation to Uganda of 'pro-Italian' Maltese subjects was illegal, null, and without effect. The dep

The Court of Appeal declares that the deportation to Uganda of 'pro-Italian' Maltese subjects was illegal, null, and without effect. The deportees remain in Uganda nonetheless.

1942 7th April

	The Royal Opera House, Valletta, is destroyed by Luftwaffe bombers.

The Royal Opera House, Valletta, is destroyed by Luftwaffe bombers.

1942 9th April

	A 200 kg bomb pierces the dome of the Rotunda of Sta. Marija Assunta, Mosta, but skids across the floor without exploding; two other bombs b

A 200 kg bomb pierces the dome of the Rotunda of Sta. Marija Assunta, Mosta, but skids across the floor without exploding; two other bombs bounce off the roof and fail to explode; 300 people were hearing Mass inside the church at the time.

1942 15th April

	The George Cross is awarded to Malta by King George VI, so as to 'bear witness to the heroism and devotion of its people'.

The George Cross is awarded to Malta by King George VI, so as to 'bear witness to the heroism and devotion of its people'.

1942 15th August

	With the people of Malta near starvation after two years of virtually constant bombardment, Operation Pedestal brings the 'Santa Marija Conv

With the people of Malta near starvation after two years of virtually constant bombardment, Operation Pedestal brings the 'Santa Marija Convoy' to Malta, saving the Islands from a planned surrender to the Axis powers.

1943 6th June

	The 21st Engineer Aviation Regiment of the USAAF arrives on Gozo to construct a landing strip at Xewkija in preparation for the Allied invas

The 21st Engineer Aviation Regiment of the USAAF arrives on Gozo to construct a landing strip at Xewkija in preparation for the Allied invasion of Italy; the airfield is constructed in 18 days.

1943 9th July

	(Operation Husky); 2,760 ships and major landing craft converge in a rendezvous near Malta in preparation for the Allied invasion of Sicily,

(Operation Husky); 2,760 ships and major landing craft converge in a rendezvous near Malta in preparation for the Allied invasion of Sicily, under the command of U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower, who was stationed in the Lascaris War Rooms, in Valletta.

1943 8th September

	On the national holiday that commemorates the lifting of the Siege of Malta (1565), Italy announces its unconditional surrender to the Allie

On the national holiday that commemorates the lifting of the Siege of Malta (1565), Italy announces its unconditional surrender to the Allied forces, thus ending the second Siege of Malta (1940).

1943 11th September

	Admiral Andrew Browne Cunningham signals to the British Admiralty: 'Be pleased to inform Their Lordships that the Italian battle fleet now l

Admiral Andrew Browne Cunningham signals to the British Admiralty: 'Be pleased to inform Their Lordships that the Italian battle fleet now lies at anchor under the guns of the fortress of Malta.'

1943 29th September

	The Italian fleet’s surrender in Malta is signed by U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower and Italian Marshal Pietro Badoglio.

The Italian fleet’s surrender in Malta is signed by U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower and Italian Marshal Pietro Badoglio.

1944

	The diocese of Malta is elevated to a Metropolitan See by Pope Pius XII.

The diocese of Malta is elevated to a Metropolitan See by Pope Pius XII.

1945 30th January

	Malta Conference (1945); President Franklin D. Roosevelt of the United States and Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom mee

Malta Conference (1945); President Franklin D. Roosevelt of the United States and Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom meet on Malta to plan the final campaign against the Germans with the combined Chiefs of Staff, and to prepare for the Yalta Conference.

1945 8th March

	The Maltese exiles are repatriated from Uganda.

The Maltese exiles are repatriated from Uganda.

1946

	A National Assembly is created.

A National Assembly is created.

1947

	Restoration of Self-Government.

Restoration of Self-Government.

1947

	Malta receives £30 million to assist with post-War reconstruction.

Malta receives £30 million to assist with post-War reconstruction.

1955 December

	A Round Table Conference is held in London, on the future of Malta.

A Round Table Conference is held in London, on the future of Malta.

1956 14th February

	A referendum is held on the integration of Malta into the United Kingdom: 75% vote 'Yes'; however, the result is deemed to be questionable d

A referendum is held on the integration of Malta into the United Kingdom: 75% vote 'Yes'; however, the result is deemed to be questionable due to a boycott by 40% of the electorate in response to concerns raised by opposition parties and by the Catholic Church.

1957

	Closure of the British naval docks in Grand Harbour has a devastating effect on the Maltese economy, leading to high unemployment at a time

Closure of the British naval docks in Grand Harbour has a devastating effect on the Maltese economy, leading to high unemployment at a time when a quarter of the workforce was employed in defence related activities.

1958

	Talks between Valletta and Whitehall regarding the integration proposal break down.

Talks between Valletta and Whitehall regarding the integration proposal break down.

1958

	The United Kingdom imposes direct colonial rule over Malta.

The United Kingdom imposes direct colonial rule over Malta.

1959

	Malta is granted an Interim Constitution, providing for the creation of an Executive Council.

Malta is granted an Interim Constitution, providing for the creation of an Executive Council.

1961

	The State of Malta is created pursuant to the Blood Constitution, which provides for a measure of self-government.

The State of Malta is created pursuant to the Blood Constitution, which provides for a measure of self-government.

1961

	Gozo is granted a local government system.

Gozo is granted a local government system.

1964 21st September

	Malta is granted independence from the United Kingdom as a Constitutional Monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II as its Head of State.

Malta is granted independence from the United Kingdom as a Constitutional Monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II as its Head of State.

1964 21st September

	The Duke of Edinburgh represents The Queen at the Independence celebrations, which were held just six months following the birth of Prince E

The Duke of Edinburgh represents The Queen at the Independence celebrations, which were held just six months following the birth of Prince Edward.

1964 1st December

	Malta joins the United Nations.

Malta joins the United Nations.

1965

	Malta joins the Council of Europe.

Malta joins the Council of Europe.

1970

	Malta becomes an Associate member of the European Community.

Malta becomes an Associate member of the European Community.

1971

	Capital punishment for murder abolished.

Capital punishment for murder abolished.

1972

	Malta enters into a Military Base Agreement with the United Kingdom and other NATO countries.

Malta enters into a Military Base Agreement with the United Kingdom and other NATO countries.

1972 16th May

	Malta adopts the Maltese pound.

Malta adopts the Maltese pound.

1973

	Malta decriminalises homosexuality.

Malta decriminalises homosexuality.

1974 13th December

	Malta becomes a Republic, with the last Governor-General, Sir Anthony Mamo, serving as its first President. Malta remains a member of the Co

Malta becomes a Republic, with the last Governor-General, Sir Anthony Mamo, serving as its first President. Malta remains a member of the Commonwealth of Nations.

1975 25th June

	Malta withdraws recognition of titles of nobility.

Malta withdraws recognition of titles of nobility.

1979 31st March

	Freedom Day, Termination of the Military Base Agreement. The Duke of Edinburgh oversees the departure of the last British forces from Malta.

Freedom Day, Termination of the Military Base Agreement. The Duke of Edinburgh oversees the departure of the last British forces from Malta.

1981 21st December

	In the national election, the Malta Labour Party remained in Government notwithstanding the fact that 51% of the electorate voted in favour

In the national election, the Malta Labour Party remained in Government notwithstanding the fact that 51% of the electorate voted in favour of the Partit Nazzjonalista. In the wake of this result, the constitution is amended to provide a mechanism whereby the party with a majority of the popular vote would be awarded a sufficient number of additional seats to give it a legislative majority.

1990 16th July

	Malta applies to join the European Union.

Malta applies to join the European Union.

1993

	Local Councils are re-established in Malta.

Local Councils are re-established in Malta.

1996 October

	The new Labour government suspends Malta's EU application.

The new Labour government suspends Malta's EU application.

1998 September

	The new Nationalist government reactivates Malta's EU application.

The new Nationalist government reactivates Malta's EU application.

2000

	Capital punishment abolished from military code of Malta.

Capital punishment abolished from military code of Malta.

2003 8th March

	A referendum regarding Malta joining the European Union results in 143,094 votes cast in favour and 123,628 against

A referendum regarding Malta joining the European Union results in 143,094 votes cast in favour and 123,628 against

2003 16th April

	Malta signs accession treaty to the European Union.

Malta signs accession treaty to the European Union.

2004 1st May

	Malta becomes a member of the European Union.

Malta becomes a member of the European Union.

2008 1st January

	Malta adopts the euro, which replaces the Maltese lira.

Malta adopts the euro, which replaces the Maltese lira.

2009 8th June

	Europeans go to the polls to elect Members of the European Parliament

Europeans go to the polls to elect Members of the European Parliament

2011 28th May

	Malta votes in favour of divorce in a referendum. Parliament approved the law on 25 July and the law came into effect on 1 October.

Malta votes in favour of divorce in a referendum. Parliament approved the law on 25 July and the law came into effect on 1 October.

2012 12th February

	Anti-ACTA activists protest across Europe

Anti-ACTA activists protest across Europe

2014 17th September

	Five hundred migrants alleged killed in deliberate sinking in Mediterranean

Five hundred migrants alleged killed in deliberate sinking in Mediterranean

2016 23rd December

	Hijackers divert Libyan passenger jet to Malta

Hijackers divert Libyan passenger jet to Malta

2017 16th October

	Assassination of journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia

Assassination of journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia

2019 20th November

	Protests started in Valletta and other urban centres of Malta, predominantly calling for resignations after alleged political links to the a

Protests started in Valletta and other urban centres of Malta, predominantly calling for resignations after alleged political links to the assassination of journalist and blogger Daphne Caruana Galizia surfaced following the arrest of businessman Yorgen Fenech.

2020 7th March

	Malta reported its first 3 cases of coronavirus: an Italian family consisting of a 12-year-old girl and her parents, who arrived in Malta on

Malta reported its first 3 cases of coronavirus: an Italian family consisting of a 12-year-old girl and her parents, who arrived in Malta on 3 March from Rome after a holiday in Trentino. The girl was the first case, with the parents testing positive for the coronavirus later in the day.